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AVEA

TURMERIC MOOD SUPPORT

FOR RESOLVING MILD, MODERATE AND SEVERE DEPRESSION

General Description

Avea - Mood is an extract produced from the root of Curcuma longa, commonly known as turmeric. Turmeric has long been used in both Ayurvedic and Chinese medicine as an anti-inflammatory, to treat digestive disorders and liver problems, and for the treatment of skin diseases and wound healing. Recent published studies have been addressing the anti-depressant properties of Avea Mood. Via the proprietary extraction and enhancement process utilized to produce Avea, the product has been enhanced to address the majority of the causes of endogenous depression. Patients suffering from depression report relief within a few hours to a few days after starting the use of Avea.

Some Reported Medicinal Properties

ANTIDEPRESSANT

ANTI-INFLAMMATORY

ANTIMICROBIAL

ANTIMUTAGENIC

ANTIOXIDANT

ANTITUMOR

CHOLECYSTOKINETIC

DEPURATIVE

FUMITORY

HEMOSTATIC

Reasearch On Nutramedix Product

Medical Conditions [peer-reviewed journals]

Cancer

Kuttan, R., Bhanumathy, P., Nirmala, K., & George, M. C. (1985). Potential anticancer activity of turmeric (Curcuma longa). Cancer Letters, 29(2), 197-202. Full Article

Depression

Yu, Z. F., Kong, L. D., & Chen, Y. (2002). Antidepressant activity of aqueous extracts of Curcuma longa in mice. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 83(1-2), 161-165. Full Article

Diabetes

Kuroda, M., Mimaki, Y., Nishiyama, T., Mae, T., Kishida, H., Tsukagawa, M., ... & Kitahara, M. (2005). Hypoglycemic effects of turmeric (Curcuma longa L. rhizomes) on genetically diabetic KK-Ay mice. Biological and Pharmaceutical Bulletin, 28(5), 937-939. Full Article

Reddy, A. C. P., & Lokesh, B. R. (1994). Effect of dietary turmeric (Curcuma longa) on iron-induced lipid peroxidation in the rat liver. Food and Chemical Toxicology32(3), 279-283.

Hepatitis B

Kim, H. J., Yoo, H. S., Kim, J. C., Park, C. S., Choi, M. S., Kim, M., ... & Ahn, J. K. (2009). Antiviral effect of Curcuma longa Linn extract against hepatitis B virus replication. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 124(2), 189-196. Full Article

Lung cancer

Mohammad, P., Nosratollah, Z., Mohammad, R., Abbas, A., & Javad, R. (2010). The inhibitory effect of Curcuma longa extract on telomerase activity in A549 lung cancer cell line. African Journal of Biotechnology, 9(6), 912-919. Full Article

Ulcers

Kim, D. C., Kim, S. H., Choi, B. H., Baek, N. I., Kim, D., Kim, M. J., & Kim, K. T. (2005). Curcuma longa extract protects against gastric ulcers by blocking H2 histamine receptors. Biological and Pharmaceutical Bulletin, 28(12), 2220-2224. Full Article

Prucksunand, C., Indrasukhsri, B., Leethochawalit, M., & Hungspreugs, K. (2001). Phase II clinical trial on effect of the long turmeric (Curcuma longa Linn.) on healing of peptic ulcer. Southeast Asian Journal of Tropical Medicine and Public Health, 32(1), 208-215. Full Article

Urinary Tract Infection (UTI)

Gul, N., Mujahid, T. Y., Jehan, N., & Ahmad, S. (2004). Studies on the Antibacterial Effect of Curcuma longa Against Urinary Tract Infection Isolates. Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences, 7(12), 2055-2060. Full Article

Tardive dyskinesia (TD)

Bishnoi, M., Chopra, K., & Kulkarni, S. K. (2008). Protective effect of Curcumin, the active principle of turmeric (Curcuma longa) in haloperidol-induced orofacial dyskinesia and associated behavioural, biochemical and neurochemical changes in rat brain. Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior, 88(4), 511-522. Full Article

Tumors

Jiang, J. L., Jin, X. L., Zhang, H., Su, X., Qiao, B., & Yuan, Y. J. (2012). Identification of antitumor constituents in curcuminoids from Curcuma longa L. based on the composition–activity relationship. Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis, 70, 664-670. Full Article

Kim, J. H., Gupta, S. C., Park, B., Yadav, V. R., & Aggarwal, B. B. (2012). Turmeric (Curcuma longa) inhibits inflammatory nuclear factor (NF)‐κB and NF‐κB‐regulated gene products and induces death receptors leading to suppressed proliferation, induced chemosensitization, and suppressed osteoclastogenesis. Molecular Nutrition & Food Research, 56(3), 454-465. Full Article

Medicinal Properties [peer-reviewed journals]

Anthelmintic Activity

Singh, R., Mehta, A., Mehta, P., & Shukla, K. (2011). Anthelmintic activity of rhizome extracts of Curcuma longa and Zingiber officinale (Zingiberaceae). International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 3(2), 236-237. Full Article

Antibacterial

Packiavathy, I. A. S. V., Priya, S., Pandian, S. K., & Ravi, A. V. (2014). Inhibition of biofilm development of uropathogens by curcumin–an anti-quorum sensing agent from Curcuma longa. Food Chemistry, 148, 453-460. Full Article

Singh, S., Sankar, B., Rajesh, S., Sahoo, K., Subudhi, E., & Nayak, S. (2011). Chemical composition of turmeric oil (Curcuma longa L. cv. Roma) and its antimicrobial activity against eye infecting pathogens. Journal of Essential Oil Research, 23(6), 11-18. Full Article

Lee, K. H., Kim, B. S., Keum, K. S., Yu, H. H., Kim, Y. H., Chang, B. S., ... & You, Y. O. (2011). Essential oil of Curcuma longa inhibits Streptococcus mutans biofilm formation. Journal of Food Science, 76(9), H226-H230. Full Article

Naz, S., Jabeen, S., Ilyas, S., Manzoor, F., Aslam, F., & Ali, A. (2010). Antibacterial activity of Curcuma longa varieties against different strains of bacteria. Pak J Bot, 42(1), 455-62. Full Article

Kim, K. J., Yu, H. H., Cha, J. D., Seo, S. J., Choi, N. Y., & You, Y. O. (2005). Antibacterial activity of Curcuma longa L. against methicillin‐resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Phytotherapy Research: An International Journal Devoted to Pharmacological and Toxicological Evaluation of Natural Product Derivatives, 19(7), 599-604. Full Article

Singh, R., Chandra, R., Bose, M., & Luthra, P. M. (2002). Antibacterial activity of Curcuma longa rhizome extract on pathogenic bacteria. Current Science, 737-740. Full Article

Anticonvulsant

Orellana-Paucar, A. M., Serruys, A. S. K., Afrikanova, T., Maes, J., De Borggraeve, W., Alen, J., ... & Esguerra, C. V. (2012). Anticonvulsant activity of bisabolene sesquiterpenoids of Curcuma longa in zebrafish and mouse seizure models. Epilepsy & Behavior, 24(1), 14-22. Full Article

Antioxidant

Kim, Y., You, Y., Yoon, H. G., Lee, Y. H., Kim, K., Lee, J., ... & Jun, W. (2014). Hepatoprotective effects of fermented Curcuma longa L. on carbon tetrachloride-induced oxidative stress in rats. Food Chemistry, 151, 148-153. Full Article

Salama, S. M., Abdulla, M. A., AlRashdi, A. S., Ismail, S., Alkiyumi, S. S., & Golbabapour, S. (2013). Hepatoprotective effect of ethanolic extract of Curcuma longa on thioacetamide induced liver cirrhosis in rats. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 13(1), 56. Full Article

Gounder, D. K., & Lingamallu, J. (2012). Comparison of chemical composition and antioxidant potential of volatile oil from fresh, dried and cured turmeric (Curcuma longa) rhizomes. Industrial Crops and Products, 38, 124-131. Full Article

Lim, H. S., Park, S. H., Ghafoor, K., Hwang, S. Y., & Park, J. (2011). Quality and antioxidant properties of bread containing turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) cultivated in South Korea. Food Chemistry, 124(4), 1577-1582. Full Article

Maizura, M., Aminah, A., & Wan Aida, W. M. (2011). Total phenolic content and antioxidant activity of kesum (Polygonum minus), ginger (Zingiber officinale) and turmeric (Curcuma longa) extract. International Food Research Journal, 18(2). Full Article

Lee, H. S., Li, L., Kim, H. K., Bilehal, D., Li, W., Lee, D. S., & Kim, Y. H. (2010). The protective effects of Curcuma longa Linn. extract on carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity in rats via upregulation of Nrf2. Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, 20(9), 1331-1338. Full Article

Singh, G., Kapoor, I. P. S., Singh, P., De Heluani, C. S., De Lampasona, M. P., & Catalan, C. A. (2010). Comparative study of chemical composition and antioxidant activity of fresh and dry rhizomes of turmeric (Curcuma longa Linn.). Food and Chemical Toxicology, 48(4), 1026-1031. Full Article

Kumar, A., Dogra, S., & Prakash, A. (2009). Protective effect of curcumin (Curcuma longa), against aluminium toxicity: Possible behavioral and biochemical alterations in rats. Behavioural Brain Research, 205(2), 384-390. Full Article

Cousins, M., Adelberg, J., Chen, F., & Rieck, J. (2007). Antioxidant capacity of fresh and dried rhizomes from four clones of turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) grown in vitro. Industrial Crops and Products, 25(2), 129-135. Full Article

Kumar, G. S., Nayaka, H., Dharmesh, S. M., & Salimath, P. V. (2006). Free and bound phenolic antioxidants in amla (Emblica officinalis) and turmeric (Curcuma longa). Journal of Food Composition and Analysis, 19(5), 446-452. Full Article

Mohanty, I., Arya, D. S., Dinda, A., Joshi, S., Talwar, K. K., & Gupta, S. K. (2004). Protective effects of Curcuma longa on ischemia-reperfusion induced myocardial injuries and their mechanisms. Life Sciences, 75(14), 1701-1711. Full Article

Braga, M. E., Leal, P. F., Carvalho, J. E., & Meireles, M. A. A. (2003). Comparison of yield, composition, and antioxidant activity of turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) extracts obtained using various techniques. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 51(22), 6604-6611. Full Article

Quiles, J. L., Mesa, M. D., Ramírez-Tortosa, C. L., Aguilera, C. M., Battino, M., Gil, Á., & Ramírez-Tortosa, M. C. (2002). Curcuma longa extract supplementation reduces oxidative stress and attenuates aortic fatty streak development in rabbits. Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology, 22(7), 1225-1231. Full Article

Ramsewak, R. S., DeWitt, D. L., & Nair, M. G. (2000). Cytotoxicity, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of curcumins I–III from Curcuma longa. Phytomedicine, 7(4), 303-308. Full Article

Selvam, R., Subramanian, L., Gayathri, R., & Angayarkanni, N. (1995). The anti-oxidant activity of turmeric (Curcuma longa). Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 47(2), 59-67. Full Article

Antimicrobial

Parveen, Z., Nawaz, S., Siddique, S., & Shahzad, K. (2013). Composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oil from leaves of Curcuma longa L. Kasur variety. Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 75(1), 117. Full Article

Lawhavinit, O. A., Kongkathip, N., & Kongkathip, B. (2010). Antimicrobial activity of curcuminoids from Curcuma longa L. on pathogenic bacteria of shrimp and chicken. Kasetsart Journal—Natural Science, 44(3), 364-371. Full Article

Sathishkumar, M., Sneha, K., & Yun, Y. S. (2010). Immobilization of silver nanoparticles synthesized using Curcuma longa tuber powder and extract on cotton cloth for bactericidal activity. Bioresource Technology, 101(20), 7958-7965. Full Article

Sunilson, J. A. J., Suraj, R., Rejitha, G., Anandarajagopal, K., Kumari, A. V. A. G., & Promwichit, P. (2009). In vitro antimicrobial evaluation of Zingiber officinale, Curcuma longa and Alpinia galanga extracts as natural food preservatives. American Journal of Food Technology, 4(5), 192-200. Full Article

Niamsa, N., & Sittiwet, C. (2009). Antimicrobial activity of Curcuma longa aqueous extract. Journal of Pharmacology and Toxicology, 4(4), 173-177. Full Article

Anti-inflammatory

Bagad, A. S., Joseph, J. A., Bhaskaran, N., & Agarwal, A. (2013). Comparative evaluation of anti-inflammatory activity of curcuminoids, turmerones, and aqueous extract of Curcuma longa. Advances in Pharmacological Sciences, 2013. Full Article

Anna, K. T., Suhana, M. E., Das, S., Faizah, O., & Hamzaini, A. H. (2011). Anti-inflammatory effect of Curcuma longa (turmeric) on collagen-induced arthritis: an anatomico-radiological study. Clin Ter, 162(3), 201-207. Full Article

Ramadan, G., Al-Kahtani, M. A., & El-Sayed, W. M. (2011). Anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant properties of Curcuma longa (turmeric) versus Zingiber officinale (ginger) rhizomes in rat adjuvant-induced arthritis. Inflammation, 34(4), 291-301. Full Article

Jurenka, J. S. (2009). Anti-inflammatory properties of curcumin, a major constituent of Curcuma longa: a review of preclinical and clinical research. Alternative Medicine Review, 14(2). Full Article

Gupta, S. K., Agarwal, R., Srivastava, S., Agarwal, P., Agrawal, S. S., Saxena, R., & Galpalli, N. (2008). The anti-inflammatory effects of Curcuma longa and Berberis aristata in endotoxin-induced uveitis in rabbits. Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, 49(9), 4036-4040. Full Article

Camacho-Barquero, L., Villegas, I., Sánchez-Calvo, J. M., Talero, E., Sánchez-Fidalgo, S., Motilva, V., & de la Lastra, C. A. (2007). Curcumin, a Curcuma longa constituent, acts on MAPK p38 pathway modulating COX-2 and iNOS expression in chronic experimental colitis. International Immunopharmacology, 7(3), 333-342. Full Article

Chainani-Wu, N. (2003). Safety and anti-inflammatory activity of curcumin: a component of tumeric (Curcuma longa). The Journal of Alternative & Complementary Medicine, 9(1), 161-168. Full Article

Gupta, B., & Ghosh, B. (1999). Curcuma longa inhibits TNF-α induced expression of adhesion molecules on human umbilical vein endothelial cells. International Journal of Immunopharmacology, 21(11), 745-757. Full Article

Antifungal

Koo, B. S., Lee, W. C., Chung, K. H., Ko, J. H., & Kim, C. H. (2004). A water extract of Curcuma longa L.(Zingiberaceae) rescues PC12 cell death caused by pyrogallol or hypoxia/reoxygenation and attenuates hydrogen peroxide induced injury in PC12 cells. Life Sciences, 75(19), 2363-2375. Full Article

Apisariyakul, A., Vanittanakom, N., & Buddhasukh, D. (1995). Antifungal activity of turmeric oil extracted from Curcuma longa (Zingiberaceae). Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 49(3), 163-169. Full Article

Antischistosomal

EL-Ansary, A. K., Ahmed, S. A., & Aly, S. A. (2007). Antischistosomal and liver protective effects of Curcuma longa extract in Schistosoma mansoni infected mice. Indian Journal of Experimental Biology, 45, 791-801. Full Article

Cardioprotective effects

El-Sayed, E. M., El-azeem, A. S. A., Afify, A. A., Shabana, M. H., & Ahmed, H. H. (2011). Cardioprotective effects of Curcuma longa L. extracts against doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity in rats. Journal of Medicinal Plants Research, 5(17), 4049-4058. Full Article

Neuroprotective

Rajakrishnan, V., Viswanathan, P., Rajasekharan, K. N., & Menon, V. P. (1999). Neuroprotective role of curcumin from Curcuma longa on ethanol‐induced brain damage. Phytotherapy Research: An International Journal Devoted to Pharmacological and Toxicological Evaluation of Natural Product Derivatives, 13(7), 571-574. Full Article

Immunostimulatory

Yue, G. G., Chan, B. C., Hon, P. M., Kennelly, E. J., Yeung, S. K., Cassileth, B. R., ... & Lau, C. B. (2010). Immunostimulatory activities of polysaccharide extract isolated from Curcuma longa. International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, 47(3), 342-347. Full Article

Immunomodulatory

Sengupta, M., Sharma, G. D., & Chakraborty, B. (2011). Hepatoprotective and immunomodulatory properties of aqueous extract of Curcuma longa in carbon tetra chloride intoxicated Swiss albino mice. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine, 1(3), 193. Full Article

Yue, G. G., Chan, B. C., Hon, P. M., Lee, M. Y., Fung, K. P., Leung, P. C., & Lau, C. B. (2010). Evaluation of in vitro anti-proliferative and immunomodulatory activities of compounds isolated from Curcuma longa. Food and Chemical Toxicology, 48(8-9), 2011-2020. Full Article

Madan, B., Gade, W. N., & Ghosh, B. (2001). Curcuma longa activates NF-κB and promotes adhesion of neutrophils to human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 75(1), 25-32. Full Article

Various properties

Liju, V. B., Jeena, K., & Kuttan, R. (2011). An evaluation of antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antinociceptive activities of essential oil from Curcuma longa. L. Indian Journal of Pharmacology, 43(5), 526. Full Article

Araujo, C. A. C., & Leon, L. L. (2001). Biological activities of Curcuma longa L. Memórias de Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, 96(5), 723-728. Full Article

Roth, G. N., Chandra, A., & Nair, M. G. (1998). Novel bioactivities of Curcuma longa constituents. Journal of Natural Products, 61(4), 542-545. Full Article

Medicinal Properties
[other journals]

Medical Conditions [other journals]

Videos

Conference Presentations

Patient Reports

"I am giving Avea Mood at 20 drops 3 times per day to my daughter who is extremely sick. It combats both natural and induced depression better than any prescription and without the side effects. When we run out, she definitely notices." -R.R.

"My depression kept me from enjoying time with my family.  I was always upset by the idea of having to do anything or go anywhere.  Once I began taking Avea, my outlook changed and my depression was gone!   It really is a great product!"-E.M.

Dosage Information

Mild Depression: take 10 drops in 4 oz. of water 2-4 times per day.

Moderate to Severe Depression: take 10 drops every 15 minutes in 2 oz. of water until symptoms are resolved. Can also put 2 droppers full (approximately 60 drops) in at least 16 oz. (480 ml) of water and sip over a 2-hour period, repeating until symptoms are resolved, then switch to 10 drops in 4 ounces (120 ml) of water 2-4 times per day for maintenance.

Protocols

Safety Information

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AVEA
Avea: Effect of Dietary Turmeric (Curcuma Longa)

Using a model system developed by Tappel and his colleagues for measuring in vivo lipid peroxidation (Hu et al., 1990), we have demonstrated that dietary turmeric lowers lipid peroxidation in rat liver homogenates and microsomes. Further, we have demonstrated that feeding turmeric to rats also modulates the antioxidant enzymes in a manner that favours the lowering of lipid peroxidation.

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Avea: Diabetes

Streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats were maintained on 0.5%curcumin containing diet for 8 weeks. Blood cholesterol was lowered significantly by dietary curcumin in these diabetic animals. Cholesterol decrease was exclusively from LDL-VLDL frac­tion.

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Avea: Antimicrobial (Aqueous)

Ethnopharmacological relevance of Curcuma longa (Zingiberaceae) is known in many countries. The root of it was widely used as food ingredient and remedy. The present study aim to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of C. longa aqueous extract.

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Avea: Antischistosomal

Schistosomiasis is one of the most common parasitic diseases which mostly affects the liver and intestine, causing granuloma formation and hepatic fibrosis. Schistosomisis also causes certain necrotic changes in liver tissues. The chemotherapy of schistosomiasis has been reviewed. praziquantel (PZQ) compound is highly active against Schistosoma haematobium, S. japonicum and S. mansoni in the hamster with no apparent significant differences against the different geographical strains of the parasites.

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Avea: Antioxidant (γ-irratdiation)

This study was conducted to evaluate the modulatory effect of aqueous extract of Curcuma longa (L.) against γ-irradiation (GR), which induces biochemical disorders in male rats. The sublethal dose of GR was determined in primary hepatocytes. Also, the effect of C. longa extract was examined for its activity against GR.

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Avea: Antimicrobial (zingiber)

In the present study, antimicrobial activity of various extracts of Zingiber officinale, Curcuma longa and Alpinia galanga were screened against the common food borne bacteria such as Escherichia coli, Salmonella enteriditis, Clostridium perfringens, Staphylococcus aureus, Campylobacter jejuni, Bacillus cereus and fungi such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Hansenula anomala, Mucor mucedo, Candida albicans using disc diffusion method. All the extracts showed significant antibacterial and antifungal properties. The methanol extracts (100 µg mL -1) revealed maximum zone of inhibition (p<0.001). Zingiber officinale and Curcuma longa possessed considerably greater activity than Alpinia galanga. These findings established the potential of the selected rhizomes of Zingiberaceae family as effective natural food preservatives. ‍

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Avea: Various properties

There are several data in the literature indicating a great variety of pharmacological activities of Curcuma longa L. (Zingiberaceae), which exhibit anti-inflammatory, anti-human immunodeficiency virus, anti-bacteria, antioxidant effects and nematocidal activities. Curcumin is a major component in Curcuma longa L., being responsible for its biological actions.

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Avea: Various properties (Novel)

Bioassay-directed fractionation of ethyl acetate extract from Curcuma longa Linn. rhizomes yielded three curcuminoids, which displayed topoisomerase I and II enzyme inhibition activity. Curcumin III (3) was the most active curcuminoid, inhibiting topoisomerase at 25 µg mL-1.

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Avea: Various properties (evaluation)

This study was aimed to evaluate the chemical composition, antioxidant potential in vitro and in vivo, anti-inflammatory, and antinociceptive activity of turmeric oil.

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Avea: Urinary Tract Infection (UTI)

Curcuma longa belongs to the family Zingiberaceae, commonly known as turmeric. Antibacterial activity of ionic, oil, resins and ethanolic fractions of turmeric was checked against both gram positive and gram negative Urinary Tract Infection isolates. Sixty-five bacterial strains were isolated from urine of patients suffering from urinary tract infection and identified by conventional methods.

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Avea: Ulcers (Peptic)

The study examined patients who had symptoms indicating peptic ulcer. Forty-five patients, 24 males and 21 females, aged between 16-60 years were included in the study. Twentyfive patients, 18 males and 7 females, were endoscoped, their ulcers located in the duodenal bulb and gastric (angulus). The ulcer sizes varied between 0.5 to 1.5 cm in diameter. Capsule-filled turmeric was given orally in the dose of 2 capsules (300 mg each) five times daily, one half to an hour before meals, at 16.00 hours and at bedtime continuously.

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Avea: Ulcers (Gastric)

Curcuma longa has been commonly used as a traditional remedy for a variety of symptoms such as inflammation, gastritis and gastric ulcer. When C. longa extract was administered per os to pylori-ligated rat stomachs, it reduced gastric acid secretion and protected against the formation of gastric mucosal lesions. We therefore tested whether C. longa extract inhibits gastric ulcers by blocking the H2 histamine receptor.

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Avea: Tumors

The incidence of cancer is significantly lower in regions where turmeric is heavily consumed. Whether lower cancer incidence is due to turmeric was investigated by examining its effects on tumor cell proliferation, on pro-inflammatory transcription factors NF-kB and STAT3, and on associated gene products.

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Avea: Tumors (composition)

Using orthogonal partial least squares (OPLS), based on the Simca-p11.5 software, and canonical correlation analysis (CCA), performed on MatLab r2010 software, the correlation between curcuminoids extracted from Curcuma longa L. and the antitumor activity on HeLa cells was investigated to identify the significantly active constituents.

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Avea: Tardive dyskinesia (TD)

The present study investigated the effect of curcumin, an antioxidant, in haloperidol-induced tardive dyskinesia by using different behavioural (orofacial dyskinetic movements, stereotypy, locomotor activity, % retention), biochemical (lipid peroxidation, reduced glutathione levels, antioxidant enzyme levels (SOD and catalase) and neurochemical (neurotransmitter levels) parameters.

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Avea: Neuroprotective

In the present study, curcumin from Curcuma longa was screened for neuroprotective activity using ethanol as a model of brain injury.

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Avea: Lung cancer

Telomerase is reactivated in lung cancer cells, the most prevalent cancer worldwide, but not normal cells. Therefore, targeting it, preferably with natural compounds derive from medicinal plant such as curcumin, could have important effect on treatment of lung cancer. Curcumin, derived from Curcuma longa rhizome, has many anti-cancer activities. Therefore, the main objective of current work was to study inhibitory effect of C. longa total extract on telomerase in A549 lung cancer cell line as in vitro model of lung cancer.

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Avea: Immunostimulatory

The present study aimed to isolate and characterize bioactive components from the polar fractions of CL extracts using bioassay-guided fractionation and to evaluate the immunomodulatory activities of such components using human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC).

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Avea: immunomodulatory

The rhizome of Curcuma longa (CL) has been commonly used in Asia as a potential candidate for the treatment of different diseases, including inflammatory disorders and cancers. The present study evaluated the anti-proliferative activities of the isolated compounds (three curcuminoids and two turmerones) from CL, using human cancer cell lines HepG2, MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231.

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Avea: Immunomodulatory (NF-k)

Upregulation of expression of cell adhesion molecules, such as ICAM-1, VCAM-1 and E-selectin, is important for immune surveillance. Extravasation and migration of body’s effector cells to the site of immune activation is controlled by the expression of cell adhesion molecules on endothelial cells. We demonstrate here that an aqueous extract prepared from Curcuma longa (ClAqE), a dietary component, promotes the adhesion of peripheral neutrophils to human umbilical vein endothelial cells.

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Avea: immunomodulatory (carbon)

Herbal drugs are known to posses immunomodulatory properties and generally act by stimulating or suppressing both specific and non-specific immunity.

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Avea: Hep. B

A medicinal herb Curcuma longa Linn has been used for treating various liver diseases caused by hepatitis B virus (HBV) in Asia.The study was performed in order to investigate the antiviral activity of Curcuma longa Linn against HBV replication in liver cells.

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Avea: Diabetes (KK-A)

In an in vitro evaluation, the extract stimulated human adipocyte differentiation in a dose-dependent manner and showed human peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-γ ligand-binding activity in a GAL4-PPAR-γ chimera assay.

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Avea: Diabetes (enzymes)

In this study, α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibitory potentials of C. longa volatile oil were evaluated for the first time. As the dried turmeric rhizomes are preferentially stored, transported and used by consumers, the effects of drying of rhizome on antidiabetic effects of its essential oil were also studied.

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Avea: Cardioprotective effects

This study was designed to investigate the possible mechanisms whereby Curcuma longa could protect against cardiotoxicity induced by doxorubicin. Administration of doxorubicin (15 mg/kg i.p.) induced cardiomyopathy manifested by significant elevation in serum creatine kinase MB (Ck-MB) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activities.

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Avea: Cancer

Anticancer activity of the rhizomes of turmeric was evaluated in vitro using tissue culture methods and in vivo in mice using Dalton’s lymphoma cells grown as ascites form.

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Avea: Antioxidant

Curcuma longa L. belongs to the family Zingiberaceae and is a perennial, tropical herb that is cultivated widely in Asia. Its rhizome is used extensively for imparting color and flavor to foods.Turmeric, a powder from the dried rhizomes, is used for medicinal purposes.

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Avea: Antioxidant (Various)

Turmeric extracts were obtained from two lots of raw material (M and S) using various techniques: hydrodistillation, low pressure solvent extraction, Soxhlet, and supercritical extraction using carbon dioxide and cosolvents. The solvents and cosolvents tested were ethanol, isopropyl alcohol, and their mixture in equal proportions. The composition of the extracts was determined by gas chromatography-flame ionization detection (GC-FID) and UV.

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Avea: Antioxidant (upregulation)

In the present study, we investigated whether CLE pretreatment exerted protective effects on CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. In addition, we attempt to elucidate the possible mechanisms underlying any such protective effect.

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Avea: Antioxidant (tetrachloride)

Curcuma longa L., known as turmeric, is a perennial herb that is widely cultivated in tropical regions of Asia and Africa. It has been used for a long time in many Asian countries as a traditional medicine for wound healing, inflammation, and stomach acidity (Ammon & Wahl, 1991).

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Avea: Antioxidant (PC12)

Since ancient times, especially for Curcuma drugs, it has been difficult to identify the botanical origins, because Curcuma plants and drugs are similar in morphology and the naming of drugs has varied, depending on the portion used or the producing area in addition to the botanical origin.

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Avea: Antioxidant (Longa)

The turmeric anti-oxidant protein (TAP) had been isolated from the aqueous extract of turmeric. The anti-oxidant principle was found to be a heat stable protein. Trypsin treatment abolished the anti-oxidant activity.

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Avea: Antioxidant (Liver)

The hepatoprotective effect of CLRE was measured in a rat model of thioacetamide-induced liver cirrhosis over 8 weeks. Hepatic cytochrome P450 2E1 and serum levels of TGF-β1 and TNF-α were evaluated.

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Avea: Antioxidant (kesum)

Herb and spices namely kesum, ginger and turmeric were extracted by using juice extractor without the additional of solvent. These herb and spices were determined for moisture content and the extracts were analyzed for total phenolic content (TPC) and antioxidant activity (DPPH radical scavenging assay and FRAP ferric-reducing antioxidant power assay).

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Avea: Antioxidant (ischemia)

The present study was undertaken to evaluate the cardioprotective potential of Curcuma longa (Turmeric) in the ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) model of myocardial infarction (MI). Wistar rats were divided into three groups and received saline orally (sham, control I/R group) and Curcuma longa 100 mg/kg (CL-100 group) respectively for one month. On the 31st day, rats of the control I/R and Cl treated groups were subjected to 45 min of occlusion of the LAD coronary artery and were thereafter reperfused for 1 h.

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Avea: Antioxidant (fresh)

Plant genotype, field conditions, and postharvest processing of turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) can alter the combinations of phytochemicals in rhizomes. We investigated the effects of drying upon the antioxidant potential of methanolic extracts from rhizomes of four clones of turmeric grown in vitro under controlled conditions. Antioxidant properties of microrhizomes were also compared with commercially available rhizome powder. The antioxidant capacities of extracts were assayed for their ability to scavenge the DPPH* radical and chelate ferrous iron.

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Avea: Antioxidant (Fatty)

This study evaluates the effect of a Curcuma longa extract on the development of experimental atherosclerosis (fatty streak) in rabbits and its interaction with other plasmatic antioxidants.

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Avea: Antioxidant (dry)

The phytoconstituents of essential oil and ethanol oleoresin of fresh and dry rhizomes of turmeric (Curcuma longa Linn.) were analyzed by GC–MS. The major constituents were aromatic-turmerone (24.4%), alpha-turmerone (20.5%) and beta-turmerone (11.1%) in fresh rhizome and aromatic-turmerone (21.4%), alpha-santalene (7.2%) and aromatic-curcumene (6.6%) in dry rhizome oil.

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Avea: Antioxidant (dried)

The present work was conducted to assess and compare the chemical composition of volatile oils from fresh, dried and cured turmeric (Curcuma longa) rhizomes from a selected single source. In addition, their antioxidant and radical scavenging potentials were correlated with chemical composition.

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Avea: Antioxidant (Bread)

Turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) powder was used to substitute 0%, 2%, 4%, 6% and 8% of wheat flour for making turmeric wheat breads. Proximate composition, physical quality, functional components (curcumin and total phenols) and antioxidant properties of breads containing turmeric were analysed and compared with those of wheat bread.

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Avea: Antioxidant (amla)

The antioxidant activity of free and bound phenolics of amla (Emblica officinalis) and turmeric (Curcuma longa) was investigated. The Emblica officinalis free (EOFP) and bound phenolics (EOBP) showed between four- to 10-fold higher levels of antioxidant activity as evaluated by both free radical scavenging and reducing power assays compared to that of Curcuma longa free (CLFP) and bound phenolics (CLBP).

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Avea: Antioxidant (Aluminium)

Aluminium is a potent neurotoxin and has been associated with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) causality for decades. Prolonged aluminium exposure induces oxidative stress and increases amyloid beta levels in vivo. Current treatment modalities for AD provide only symptomatic relief thus necessitating the development of new drugs with fewer side effects. The aim of the study was to demonstrate the protective effect of chronic curcumin administration against aluminium-induced cognitive dysfunction and oxidative damage in rats.

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Avea: Antimicrobial

The present study reports the synthesis of silver (Ag) nanoparticles from silver precursor using plant biomaterials, Curcuma longa tuber powder and extract. Water-soluble organics present in the plant materials were mainly responsible for the reduction of silver ions to nano-sized silver particles.

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Avea: Antimicrobial (shrimp)

Ethanol turmeric extract, hexane turmeric extract and curcuminoids (from the ethyl acetate extract of curcuminoids from Curcuma longa, which contained 86.5% curcumin) were evaluated for their inhibitory effect on 24 strains of pathogenic bacteria isolated from shrimp and chicken.

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Avea: Antimicrobial (Kasur)

The essential oil from the leaves of Curcuma longa L. Kasur variety grown in Pakistan was extracted by hydro‑distillation. Chemical constituents of the essential oil were identified by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The chromatographic analysis of oil showed 25 constituents, out of which nine chemical constituents were identified.

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Avea: Antimicrobial (Eye)

The essential oil from the rhizomes of Roma cultivar of turmeric (Curcuma longa) from Orissa was examined for its antimicrobial activity against the pathogens causing eye infections. The oil was obtained by hydrodistillation extraction method using Clevenger apparatus. Chemical analysis of the oil was done by using gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The antimicrobial effects of oil towards Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger were tested by inhibition zone diameter (IZD) test to screen the antimicrobial activity, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) test and minimum killing time (MKT) test to determine the minimum concentration of oil and minimum time required to kill the pathogens.

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Avea: Anti-inflammatory

While numerous pharmacological activities, including antioxidant and antimicrobial properties, have been attributed to curcumin, this article focuses on curcumin's anti-inflammatory properties and its use for inflammatory conditions. Curcumin's effect on cancer (from an anti-inflammatory perspective) will also be discussed; however, an exhaustive review of its many anticancer mechanisms is outside the scope of this article.

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Avea: Anti-inflammatory (Uveitis)

The animal model of endotoxin-induced uveitis has often been used to represent acute anterior uveitis in humans. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a glycolipid from the outer cell membranes of Gram-negative bacteria is a proinflammatory component and is used to induce uveitis in animals by a systemic or ocular route. Exposure to LPS induces expression of various mediators of inflammation such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and other cytokines.

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Avea: Anti-inflammatory (Turmerones)

Curcuma longa is widely known for its anti-inflammatory activity in traditional system of medicine for centuries and has been scientifically validated extensively. The present study was conducted to evaluate the anti-inflammatory activity of curcuminoids and oil-free aqueous extract (COFAE) of C. longa and compare it with that of curcuminoids and turmerones (volatile oil), the bioactive components of C. longa that are proven for the anti-inflammatory potential.

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Avea: Anti-inflammatory (TNF)

Identification of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory small molecules is very important for the development of anti-inflammatory drugs. We demonstrate here that out of three compounds, viz diferuloylmethane, p-coumaroylferuloylmethane and di-p-coumaroylmethane, present in the ethyl acetate extract of Curcuma longa, diferuloylmethane is most potent in inhibiting TNF-α induced expression of ICAM-1, VCAM-1 and E-selectin on human umbilical vein endothelial cells.

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Avea: Anti-inflammatory (safety)

Tumeric is a spice that comes from the root Curcuma longa, a member of the ginger family, Zingaberaceae. In Ayurveda (Indian traditional medicine), tumeric has been used for its medicinal properties for various indications and through different routes of administration, including topically, orally, and by inhalation. Curcuminoids are components of tumeric, which include mainly curcumin (diferuloyl methane), demethoxycurcumin, and bisdemethoxycurcmin. The goal of this systematic review of the literature was to summarize the literature on the safety and anti-inflammatory activity of curcumin

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Avea: Anti-inflammatory (COX-2)

Curcumin is a polyphenol derived from Curcuma longa, which is known to have anti-inflammatory activity. The aim of this study was to study the effects and mechanisms of action of curcumin, on chronic colitis in rats. Inflammation response was assessed by histology and myeloperoxidase activity (MPO).

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Avea: Anti-inflammatory (collagen)

Curcuma longa (CL) or turmeric is an Ayurvedic herb that has been traditionally used to treat inflammatory conditions like rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) is a well established experimental auto-immune mediated polyarthritis in susceptible strains of rodents. The main aim of the study was to observe the inflammatory, macroscopic and radiological changes in the arthritic ankle joints of experimentally collagen-induced arthritis animals treated with or without CL extract.

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Avea: Anti-inflammatory (Arthritis)

Turmeric (rich in curcuminoids) and ginger (rich in gingerols and shogaols) rhizomes have been widely used as dietary spices and to treat different diseases in Ayurveda/Chinese medicine since antiquity. Here, we compared the anti-inflammatory/anti-oxidant activity of these two plants in rat adjuvant-induced arthritis (AIA).

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Avea: Antifungal

Curcuma longa L. (turmeric) has long been used as a common household medicine and as a spice in Southeast Asia. Turmeric contains essential oil, yellow pigments (curcuminoids), starch and oleoresin (Leung, 1980). In this investigation the antifungal activity of turmeric oil and curcumin was tested against dermatophytes, yeasts and pathogenic molds. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of these compounds was determined. Following the completion of in vitro antifungal tests, an in vivo study in guinea pigs was performed.

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Avea: Antidepressant

Previous report suggested that curcumin isolated from C. longa as food constituent attenuates the activity of C6 glial cells monoamine oxidize (MAO), which plays a central role in several psychiatric and age-related neurological disorders, including clinical depression and Parkinson’s disease (Mazzio et al., 1998). In the present study, we examined the in vivo antidepressant activities by the aqueous extracts of C. longa in mouse models of immobility tests as well as MAO activity in mouse whole brain in comparison with the effects of reference antidepressant fluoxetine (SSRI).

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Avea: Anticonvulsant

Turmeric, obtained from the rhizomes of Curcuma longa, is used in South Asia as a traditional medicine for the treatment of epilepsy. To date, in vivo studies on the anticonvulsant activity of turmeric have focused on its principal curcuminoid, curcumin. However, poor absorption and rapid metabolism have limited the therapeutic application of curcumin in humans. To explore the therapeutic potential of turmeric for epilepsy further, we analyzed its anticonvulsant activity in a larval zebrafish seizure assay.

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Avea: Antibacterial

Curcuma longa rhizome extracts were evaluated for antibacterial activity against pathogenic strains of Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis) and Gram-negative (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhimurium) bacteria.

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Avea: Antibacterial (Strept)

In this study, we evaluated the inhibitory effects of an essential oil isolated from C. longa on the cariogenic properties of Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans), which is an important bacterium in dental plaque and dental caries formation.

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Avea: Antibacterial (Strains)

Development of bacterial resistance to the available antibiotics and increasing popularity of traditional medicine has led researchers to investigate the antibacterial compounds in plants. Curcuma longa is a medicinal plant that botanically is related to Zingiberaceae family (Chattopadhyay et al., 2004). C. longa, commonly known as ‘turmeric’, is widely used as a spice and colouring agent, and is well known for its medicinal properties (Luthra et al., 2001).

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Avea: Antibacterial (Staphylococcus)

Curcuma longa L. (C. longa), popularly known as turmeric, has long been used as a spice in Southeast Asia. It has also been used in Oriental folk medicines to treat infectious diseases (e.g. sinusitis, cough), cholecystitis and cholangitis and used as a therapy for hepatic disorders, rheumatism and anorexia (Kim, 1989). Previous works have shown that C. longa inhibited the growth of activity of some bacteria and fungi (Apisariyakul et al., 1995; Negi et al., 1999; Singh et al., 2002; Chauhan et al., 2003). However, little is known about the antimicrobial effects of C. longa on MRSA.

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Avea: Antibacterial (quorum)

Plant-derived compounds have long been used to treat microbial infections (Gibot, 2004) and have gained much interest as a source of anti-QS compounds for the treatment of biofilms (Musthafa, Ravi, Annapoorani, Packiavathy, & Pandian, 2010). Recently, dietary phytochemicals with a long history of medical use in humans are being investigated for the purpose of controlling biofilms, due to their non-toxic nature (Brackman et al., 2008; Rudrappa & Bais, 2008).

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Avea: Anthelmintic Activity

Hydro‐alcoholic extracts of Curcuma longa, Zingiber officinale and combination of Curcuma longa and Zingiber officinale rhizome extracts (1:1) were evaluated for their anthelmintic activity using Pheretima posthuma model (Indian earthworm). Three concentrations (10, 20 and 50 mg/ml) of each extracts were used for this study which involved the determination of time of paralysis (vermifuge) and time of death (vermicidal activity) of the worms.

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