The animal model of endotoxin-induced uveitis has often been used to represent acute anterior uveitis in humans. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a glycolipid from the outer cell
membranes of Gram-negative bacteria is a proinflammatory component and is used to induce uveitis in animals by a systemic or ocular route. Exposure to LPS induces expression of various mediators of inflammation such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and other cytokines. Increased expression of inflammatory mediators contributes to the development of anterior uveitis, with the breakdown of the blood-ocular barrier leading to infiltration of the aqueous humor with inflammatory cells and the leakage of protein. Experimental
uveitis peaks at 24 hours after LPS injection and gradually subsides over the next 24 hours.