Curcuma longa Linn. is well-known and valued medicinal plant. It has a long history of traditional uses ranging from folk medicine to several culinary preparations. The phytochemical, pharmacological, and molecular studies of C. longa are reviewed. The rhizome is rich in essential oils, and various numbers of chemical constituents with biomedical significance have been isolated from it. The management of indigenous knowledge by appropriate documentation is recommended. This review was compiled to provide recent consolidated information covering different aspects of the plant, phytochemical, pharmacological, and molecular study to provide a basis on which to plan future studies and to promote sustainable use of C. longa.