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Antiviral effect of Curcuma longa Linn extract against hepatitis B virus replication

Ethnopharmacological relevance: A medicinal herb Curcuma longa Linn has been used for treating various liver diseases caused by hepatitis B virus (HBV) in Asia.

Aim of the study: The study was performed in order to investigate the antiviral activity of Curcuma longa Linn against HBV replication in liver cells.

Materials and methods: Aqueous extract of Curcuma longa Linn (CLL) was prepared and used to analyze its antiviral activity against HBV replication in HepG 2.2.15 cells, which contain HBV genomes. The inhibitory effect of CLL on HBV replication was examined by testing the levels of secreted HBV surface antigens (HBsAg), HBV DNAs, and HBV RNAs in HepG 2.2.15 cells using ELISA, Southern blot, and Northern blot analyses. Cytotoxic activities of CLL extract on various liver cells were analyzed by MTT assay. To dissect
the inhibitory mechanism of CLL extract on HBV replication, the levels of p53 protein and p53 mRNAs were analyzed by Western blot and RT-PCR in HepG 2.2.15 cells. The repression of CLL extract on HBV transcription was analyzed by RT-PCR and CAT assay.

Results: : CLL extract repressed the secretion of HBsAg from HepG 2.2.15 cells. CLL extract also suppressed the production of HBV particles and the level of intracellular HBV RNAs in HepG 2.2.15 cells, suggesting that CLL extract inhibits HBV replication. We found that the anti-HBV activity of CLL extract is mediated through enhancing the cellular accumulation of p53 protein by transactivating the transcription of p53 gene as well as increasing the stability of p53 protein. It turned out that CLL extract repressed the transcription of HBx gene by suppressing HBV enhancer I and X promoter through p53 protein. In addition, CLL extract did not have any cytotoxic effects on liver cells.

Conclusion: These data showed that CLL extract represses HBV replication through enhancing the level of p53 protein. CLL extract can be used as a safe and specific drug for patients with liver diseases caused by HBV infection.