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General Description

Babuna is an extract produced from the flower of Matricaria recutita, commonly known as chamomile. Azulene, one of the active natural substances found in Babuna, has been shown to inhibit histamine release and to regulate the effect of serotonin. Serotonin is a multi-role neurotransmitter that the body produces in the brain and other nervous tissue. One of the important functions of serotonin is to slow down nerve traffic and induce normal sleep. The inability to sleep is often caused by a serotonin deficiency. Via the proprietary process used to produce Babuna, this remedy has been designed to improve serotonin function and therefore improve sleep.

Some Reported Medicinal Properties






















Research On NutraMedix Product

An acute oral toxicity study was conducted by the University of Guayaquil, Ecuador concluding that Babuna did not produce toxic effects, thus the product is considered practically innocuous for humans when administered in the acute form. Therefore; studies of acute toxicity at higher doses in humans are not necessary. Full Article

Medical Conditions [peer-reviewed journals]


Keefe, J. R., Guo, W., Li, Q. S., Amsterdam, J. D., & Mao, J.J. (2018). An exploratory study of salivary cortisol changes during chamomile extract therapy of moderate to severe generalized anxiety disorder. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 96,189-195. Full Article

Amsterdam, J. D., Li, Y., Soeller, I., Rockwell, K., Mao, J. J.,& Shults, J. (2009). A randomized,double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of oral Matricaria recutita (chamomile) extract therapy of generalized anxiety disorder. Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology, 29(4), 378. Full Article


Srivastava, J. K., & Gupta, S.(2007). Antiproliferative and apoptotic effects of chamomile extract in various human cancer cells. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 55(23), 9470-9478. Full Article


Emam, M. A. (2012). Comparative evaluation of antidiabetic activity of Rosmarinus officinalis L. and Chamomile recutita in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Agric. Biol. JN Am, 3(6), 247-252. Full Article

Oral Mucositis

Gomes, V. T. S., Nonato Silva Gomes,R., Gomes, M. S., Joaquim, W. M., Lago, E. C., & Nicolau, R. A. (2018). Effects of Matricaria Recutita (L.) in theTreatment of Oral Mucositis. The Scientific World Journal, 2018. Full Article

Fidler, P., Loprinzi, C. L.,O'Fallon, J. R., Leitch, J. M., Lee, J. K., Hayes, D. L., ... & Michalak,J. C. (1996). Prospective evaluation of a chamomile mouthwash for prevention of 5‐FU‐induced oral mucositis. Cancer: Interdisciplinary International Journal of the American Cancer Society, 77(3),522-525. Full Article

Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS)

Asadi-Shahmirzadi, A., Mozaffari, S.,Sanei, Y., Baeeri, M., Hajiaghaee, R., Monsef-Esfahani, H. R., & Abdollahi,M. (2012). Benefit of Aloe vera and Matricaria recutita mixture in rat irritable bowel syndrome: Combination of antioxidant and spasmolytic effects. Chinese Journal of Integrative medicine, 1-9. Full Article

Various Conditions

Srivastava, J. K., Shankar, E., &Gupta, S. (2010). Chamomile: a herbal medicine of the past with a bright future. Molecular Medicine Reports, 3(6), 895-901. Full Article

Gardiner, P. (2007). Complementary, holistic, and integrative medicine: chamomile. Pediatrics in Review, 28(4), e16. Full Article

Medicinal Properties [peer-reviewed journals]


Chandrashekhar, V. M., Halagali, K. S., Nidavani, R. B., Shalavadi, M. H., Biradar, B. S., Biswas, D., & Muchchandi, I. S. (2011). Anti-allergic activity of German chamomile (Matricaria recutita L.) in mast cell mediated allergy model. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 137(1), 336-340. Full Article


M Moricz, A., Szarka, S., G Ott, P., B Hethelyi, E., Szoke, E., & Tyihak, E. (2012). Separation and identification of antibacterial chamomile components using OPLC, bioautography and GC-MS. Medicinal Chemistry, 8(1), 85-94. Full Article


Amsterdam, J. D., Shults, J., Soeller, I., Mao, J. J., Rockwell, K., & Newberg, A. B. (2012). Chamomile (matricaria recutita) may have antidepressant activity in anxious depressed humans-an exploratory study. Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine, 18(5), 44. Full Article


Jamalian, A., Shams-Ghahfarokhi, M., Jaimand, K., Pashootan, N., Amani, A., & Razzaghi-Abyaneh, M. (2012). Chemical composition and antifungal activity of Matricaria recutita flower essential oil against medically important dermatophytes and soil-borne pathogens. Journal de Mycologie Médicale/Journal of Medical Mycology, 22(4), 308-315. Full Article


Begum, N. (2017). In vitro investigation of anti-inflammatory and COX-2 inhibitory potential of flower extracts of Matricaria recutita. International Journal of Green Pharmacy (IJGP), 11(02). Full Article

Bhaskaran, N., Shukla, S., Srivastava, J. K., & Gupta, S. (2010). Chamomile: an anti-inflammatory agent inhibits inducible nitric oxide synthase expression by blocking RelA/p65 activity. International Journal of Molecular Medicine, 26(6), 935-940. Full Article

Srivastava, J. K., Pandey, M., & Gupta, S. (2009). Chamomile, a novel and selective COX-2 inhibitor with anti-inflammatory activity. Life Sciences, 85(19-20), 663-669. Full Article


Heidari, M. R., Dadollahi, Z., Mehrabani, M., Mehrabi, H., Pourzadeh‐Hosseini, M., Behravan, E., & Etemad, L. (2009). Study of antiseizure effects of Matricaria recutita extract in mice. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1171(1), 300-304. Full Article


Göger, G., Demirci, B., Ilgın, S., & Demirci, F. (2018). Antimicrobial and toxicity profiles evaluation of the Chamomile (Matricaria recutita L.) essential oil combination with standard antimicrobial agents. Industrial Crops and Products, 120, 279-285. Full Article

Abd El Raheim, M., Alam, A., Nour, Y. S., & Radwan, A. M. (2016). Evaluation of Antimicrobial and Antioxidant activities of Matricaria recutita, Ricinus communis and Zygophyllum coccineum Extracts. Bull. Env. Pharmacol. Life Sci, 5, 30-33. Full Article

Kazemi, M. (2015). Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of essential oil of Matricaria recutita. International Journal of Food Properties, 18(8), 1784-1792. Full Article


Hwang, S. H., Wang, Z., Quispe, G., Yanymee, N., Lim, S. S., & Yu, J. M. (2018). Evaluation of Aldose Reductase, Protein Glycation, and Antioxidant Inhibitory Activities of Bioactive Flavonoids in Matricaria recutita L. and Their Structure-Activity Relationship. Journal of Diabetes Research, 2018. Full Article

Hajaji, S., Sifaoui, I., López-Arencibia, A., Reyes-Batlle, M., Jiménez, I. A., Bazzocchi, I. L., ... & Akkari, H. (2017). Correlation of radical-scavenging capacity and amoebicidal activity of Matricaria recutita L.(Asteraceae). Experimental parasitology, 183, 212-217. Full Article

Hashemi, S. M. B., Brewer, M. S., Safari, J., Nowroozi, M., Abadi Sherahi, M. H., Sadeghi, B., & Ghafoori, M. (2016). Antioxidant activity, reaction mechanisms, and kinetics of Matricaria recutita extract in commercial blended oil oxidation. International Journal of Food Properties, 19(2), 257-271. Full Article

Sebai, H., Jabri, M. A., Souli, A., Hosni, K., Rtibi, K., Tebourbi, O., ... & Sakly, M. (2015). Chemical composition, antioxidant properties and hepatoprotective effects of chamomile (Matricaria recutita L.) decoction extract against alcohol-induced oxidative stress in rat. General Physiology and Biophysics, 34(3), 263-275. Full Article

Sebai, H., Jabri, M. A., Souli, A., Rtibi, K., Selmi, S., Tebourbi, O., ... & Sakly, M. (2014). Antidiarrheal and antioxidant activities of chamomile (Matricaria recutita L.) decoction extract in rats. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 152(2), 327-332. Full Article

Pereira, R. P., Fachinetto, R., de Souza Prestes, A., Puntel, R. L., Da Silva, G. N. S., Heinzmann, B. M., ... & Morsch, V. M. (2009). Antioxidant effects of different extracts from Melissa officinalis, Matricaria recutita and Cymbopogon citratus. Neurochemical Research, 34(5), 973-983. Full Article


Kobayashi, Y., Takahashi, R., & Ogino, F. (2005). Antipruritic effect of the single oral administration of German chamomile flower extract and its combined effect with antiallergic agents in ddY mice. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 101(1-3), 308-312. Full Article

Kobayashi, Y., Nakano, Y., Inayama, K., Sakai, A., & Kamiya, T. (2003). Dietary intake of the flower extracts of German chamomile (Matricaria recutita L.) inhibited compound 48/80-induced itch-scratch responses in mice. Phytomedicine, 10(8), 657-664. Full Article


Koch, C., Reichling, J., Kehm, R., Sharaf, M. M., Zentgraf, H., Schneele, J., & Schnitzler, P. (2008). Efficacy of anise oil, dwarf‐pine oil and chamomile oil against thymidine‐kinase‐positive and thymidine‐kinase‐negative herpesviruses. Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, 60(11), 1545-1550. Full Article


Viola, H., Wasowski, C., De Stein, M. L., Wolfman, C., Silveira, R., Dajas, F., ... & Paladini, A. C. (1995). Apigenin, a component of Matricaria recutita flowers, is a central benzodiazepine receptors-ligand with anxiolytic effects. Planta Medica, 61(03), 213-216. Full Abstract

Leishmanicidal activity

Hajaji, S., Sifaoui, I., López-Arencibia, A., Reyes-Batlle, M., Jiménez, I. A., Bazzocchi, I. L., ... & Piñero, J. E. (2018). Leishmanicidal activity of α-bisabolol from Tunisian chamomile essential oil. Parasitology Research, 1-13. Full Article

Neuroprotective activity

Ranpariya, V. L., Parmar, S. K., Sheth, N. R., & Chandrashekhar, V. M. (2011). Neuroprotective activity of Matricaria recutita against fluoride-induced stress in rats. Pharmaceutical Biology, 49(7), 696-701. Full Article

Chandrashekhar, V. M., Ranpariya, V. L., Ganapaty, S., Parashar, A., & Muchandi, A. A. (2010). Neuroprotective activity of Matricaria recutita Linn against global model of ischemia in rats. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 127(3), 645-651. Full Article

Pain Relief

Zargaran, A., Borhani-Haghighi, A., Salehi-Marzijarani, M., Faridi, P., Daneshamouz, S., Azadi, A., ... & Mohagheghzadeh, A. (2018). Evaluation of the effect of topical chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla L.) oleogel as pain relief in migraine without aura: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study. Neurological Sciences, 1-9. Full Article


Sándor, Z., Mottaghipisheh, J., Veres, K., Hohmann, J., Bencsik, T., Horváth, A., ... & Csupor, D. (2018). Evidence supports tradition: the in vitro effects of Roman Chamomile on smooth muscles. Frontiers in Pharmacology, 9, 323. Full Article

Various Properties

Petronilho, S., Maraschin, M., Coimbra, M. A., & Rocha, S. M. (2012). In vitro and in vivo studies of natural products: A challenge for their valuation. The case study of chamomile (Matricaria recutita L.). Industrial Crops and Products, 40, 1-12. Full Article

Medicinal Properties
[other journals]

Medical Conditions [other journals]


Conference Presentations

Patient Reports

“Seems to help with sleep. Very convenient. I use it sublingually sometimes if I wake up too early” – C.T

“I really didn't expect this to work very well and was very pleased to find that it's really very effective and I only take three drops per night.” – M.J

"I use this every night and it works great for me, I don't feel that sleeping med drowsiness in the morning either."-R.I.

"Absolutely fantastic! Me and my teenage daughter couldn't cope without it. Closes off any 'brainwaves' and allows you to go to sleep within 20 minutes." -E.H.

Dosage Information

15 Drops in 4 oz. of water at bedtime.  Repeat during the night as needed. Can also be used at a dose of 10-15 drops during the day as needed for anxiety.


Safety Information

An acute oral toxicity study was conducted by the University of Guayaquil, Ecuador concluding that Babuna did not produce toxic effects, thus the product is considered practically innocuous for humans when administered in the acute form. Therefore; studies of acute toxicity at higher doses in humans are not necessary. Full Article

Product Label

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Babuna: Antimicrobial (Chemical)

Matricaria recutita is a herbaceous plant belonging to the Asteraceae family. The present study reports the chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of M. recutita essential oil and its main compounds.

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Babuna: Anti-inflammatory (COX-2,potential)

Matricaria recutita has been traditionally used as a long-term anti-inflammatory herb, thus giving scope for anti-inflammatory studies. The study was conducted to investigate in vitro anti-inflammatory and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitory activities of dried flower extracts of Matricaria recutita.

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Babuna: Antioxidant (Asteraceae)

Acanthamoeba is a widely distributed genus worldwide and it has been isolated from many environments such as water, soil, dust and many others (Lorenzo-Morales et al., 2015).

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Babuna: Antimicrobial (evaluation)

This work aimed to evaluate the antimicrobial and antioxidant activity of methanolic extract of some plant (Ricinus communis, Matricaria recutita and Zygophyllum coccineum) extracts used in herbal remedy and folk medicine in Saudi Arabia, Results indicated that, the total extract the studied plants showed activity against the tested microbes, the highest activity was observed by using Matricaria chamomilla at conc.

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Babuna: Chamomile (Matricaria recutita) May Provide

Anxiety and depression are the most commonly reported psychiatric conditions and frequently occur as comorbid disorders. While the advent of conventional drug therapies has simplified treatment, a large segment of the population goes untreated or declines conventional therapy for financial, cultural, or personal reasons. The current study explores data from a 2009 clinical chamomile trial in humans to determine if chamomile provides clinically meaningful antidepressant activity versus a placebo.

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Babuna: Anti-allergic activity of German chamomile (Matricaria recutita L.)

Chamomile is most popular used medicinal plant and extensively consumed as a tea or tisanes. Traditionally this plant was used for treatment of many ailments such as allergy disorders and inflammatory mediated diseases. We investigated the effects of anti-allergic activity of Matricaria recutita L. on mast cell mediated allergic models.

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Babuna: Neuroprotective Activity (flouride)

Oxidative stress plays a key role in pathophysiology of many neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, Huntington’s disease, and so on. Although Matricaria recutita L. (Asteraceae), German chamomile, is traditionally used for central nervous system (CNS)-related diseases, its antistress properties have received little attention.

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Babuna: Various Properties

Medicinal plant research is universally on the rise. Researchers, as well as the general public, recognize that natural products, predominantly those derived from plants, may exhibit health benefits. The tendency is to consider natural products as non-toxic and presenting fewer side effects than those used by conventional medicine.

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Babuna: Various Conditions

The effect of plants on human health has been documented for thousands of years. Herbs have been integral to both traditional and non-traditional forms of medicine dating back at least 5000 years. The enduring popularity of herbal medicines may be explained by the tendency of herbs to work slowly, usually with minimal toxic side effects.

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Babuna: Various Conditions (Holistic)

Chamomile is a common flowering plant and a member of the daisy family. There are two primary types: German chamomile (Matricaria recutita) and Roman chamomile (Anthemis nobilis). Most research has focused on German chamomile. Chamomile is one of the most widely used herbs in the world, especially in children. It is used topically for rashes, eczema, and hemorrhoids or orally as a mild sedative or for indigestion, diarrhea, and colic.

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Babuna: Toxicity 05-2005

Demonstration of the innocuousness of this product is important in that the product could produce undesirable reactions in individuals who use it. Demonstrating that it does not produce toxic effects can lead to other tests that will allow it to be registered as a new medicine.

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Babuna: Sedative Effect Test 1

The demonstration of this product has a sedative effect is important due to its potential as a new, plant-based medication, with its associated low toxicity. This was demonstrated by us in a previous work, allowing us to enter the product as a new medication in the appropriate Register.

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Babuna: Relaxant

The dried flowers of Chamaemelum nobile (L.) All. have been used in traditional medicine for different conditions related to the spasm of the gastrointestinal system. However, there have been no experimental studies to support the smooth muscle relaxant effect of this plant.

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Babuna: Pain Relief

Phytotherapy is a source of finding new remedies for migraine. Traditional chamomile oil (chamomile extraction in sesame oil) is a formulation in Persian medicine (PM) for pain relief in migraine.

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Babuna: Oral Mucositis

The oral mucositis is a common infammation in patients with malignant neoplasms, undergoing antineoplastic therapy; its symptoms predispose the oncological patient to various serious complications. Itsincidence is 75–100% among patients who perform hematopoietic stem cell transplantation; 40– 85% of incidences occur in patients during chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy.

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Babuna: Oral Mucositis (Mouthwash)

There were 164 evaluable and well-stratified patients equally randomized to both treatment groups. There was no suggestion of any stomatitis difference between patients randomized to either protocol arm. There was also no suggestion of toxicity. Subset analysis did reveal unsuspected differential effects between males and females that could not be explained by reasons other than chance.

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Babuna: Neuroprotective activity

Cerebrovascular diseases (CVD) include some of the most common devastating disorders such as ischemic stroke, hemorrhagic stroke, cerebrovascular anomalies, etc. They cause two lacks deaths each year and are major cause of disability (Wade et al., 2005). Stroke has been ranked third most common cause of death worldwide and cerebrovascular diseases are considered second most frequent causes of projected deaths in the year 2020.

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Babuna: Leishmanicidal activity

According to the World Health Organization, leishmaniasis is considered as a major neglected tropical disease causing an enormous impact on global public health. Available treatments were complicated due to the high resistance, toxicity, and high cost. Therefore, the search for novel sources of anti-leishmania agents is an urgent need. In the present study, an in vitro evaluation of the leishmanicidal activity of the essential oil of Tunisian chamomile (Matricaria recutita L.) was carried out.

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Babuna: IBS

The exact etiology of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is not known yet and thus effective management of IBS is still a challenge. Visceral hypersensitivity in the development of pain or discomfort, gut dysmotility, 5-hydroxy tryptamine (5-HT) dysregulation, stress and psychological disturbances, previous infection, small intestinal bacterial overgrowth, food intolerance, inflammation, immune activation, and oxidative stress seem involved in the pathophysiology of IBS.

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Babuna: Diabetes

Herbal formulations are getting more importance in the treatment of diabetes, cancer and hepatic disorder because of the hazardous adverse effects of the current therapy. Especially diabetes can be controlled by Allopathic medicine as well as Herbal medicine.

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Babuna: Cancer (Abstract)

Chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla), a popular herb valued for centuries as a traditional medicine, has been used to treat various human ailments; however, its anticancer activity is unknown.

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Babuna: Antifungal

Fungi are ubiquitous in the environment, and infection due to fungal pathogens has become more frequent. Fungal diseases represent a critical problem to health and they are one of the main causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Dermatophytoses, although very fastidious and difficult to manage, are less serious problems with respect to life-threatening invasive fungal infections.

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Babuna: Аnxiety

We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebocontrolled efficacy and tolerability trial of Matricaria recutita (chamomile) extract therapy in patients with mild to moderate generalized anxiety disorder (GAD).

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Babuna: Anxiety (salivary)

Dysfunctions in stress biology are hypothesized to contribute to anxiety disorders, and to be ameliorated during successful treatment, but limited clinical data exist to support this hypothesis. We evaluated whether increases in morning cortisol and the diurnal cortisol slope, markers of stress biology, are associated with clinical response to chamomile therapy among subjects with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD).

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Babuna: Antiviral

The effect of anise oil, dwarf-pine oil and chamomile oil against different thymidine-kinase-positive (aciclovir-sensitive) and thymidine-kinase-negative (aciclovir-resistant) herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) strains was examined. Clinical HSV-1 isolates containing frameshift mutations in the thymidine kinase (TK) gene, an insertion or a deletion, yield a non-functional thymidine kinase enzyme resulting in phenotypical resistance against aciclovir.

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Babuna: Antiseizure

Epilepsy is one of the most common neurological disorders with no age, racial, social, sexual, or geographical boundaries and affects about 50 million people worldwide. In developed countries where drugs are easily available, epilepsy responds to treatment in up to 70% of patients.

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Babuna: Antipruritic

Itching and scratching are important factors in the maintenance of symptoms of skin diseases especially in patients with atopic dermatitis (Wahlgren, 1999). Histamine is well known to be present in skin mast cells and considered to be an important mediator of itchiness, however, the itch of atopic dermatitis is generally resistant to antihistamines.

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Babuna: Antipruritic (48_80)

The antipruritic effects of the diets containing Gern1an chamomile on the compound 48/80-induced scratching in ddY mice were examined. Since it is reported that an injec­tion of compound 48/80, but not histamine, induced scratching behaviour due to itch but not to pain in ddY mice (Kuraishi et al., 1995), compound 48/80-induced scratching in ddY mice seems to be a suitable parameter for evaluating antipruritic agents independent of histamine receptor antagonism.

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Babuna: Antioxidant effects

Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are generated by normal metabolic processes in all organisms utilizing oxygen. However, excessive ROS production can overcome cellular antioxidant defenses and can lead to a condition termed oxidative stress. Of particular importance, oxidative stress has been implicated in the installation and progression of several degenerative diseases, via either DNA mutation, protein oxidation and/or lipid peroxidation.

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Babuna: Antioxidant (Diarrheal)

Diarrhea is a major health problem, especially for children under the age of 5 years in developing countries including Tunisia (Bryce et al., 2005). This disease is responsible for about 5 million deaths annually (Heinrich et al., 2005). Diarrhea is characterized by a discharge of semisolid or watery fecal matter from the bowel three or more times in one day (Suleiman et al., 2008) leading to inflammatory response and oxidative stress (Song et al., 2011).

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Babuna: Antioxidant (commercial)

In order to prolong the storage life of vegetable oils, various synthetic antioxidants such as tert-Butylhydroquinone (TBHQ), butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), and butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) are currently used, but these substances have toxic and carcinogenic effects on the human health.

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Babuna: Antioxidant (Bioactive)

Persistent hyperglycemia induces abnormal changes, such as increased formation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and polyol pathway flux, and the overactivation of protein kinase C isoforms. Diabetic complications including neuropathy, nephropathy, cataracts, and retinopathy are considered to be caused by the accumulation of sorbitol, which is produced from glucose by aldose reductase in the polyol pathway.

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Babuna: Antioxidant (alcohol)

Chamomile (Matricaria recutita L.) is one of the most widely used and well-documented medicinal plants in the world (Salamon 1992). It has been included for centuries in the pharmacopoeia of several countries including Tunisia. The phytochemical screening of this plant revealed that it is rich in cytoprotective active molecules such as phenolic compounds (McKay and Blumberg 2006).

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Babuna: Antimicrobial

Matricaria recutita (Matricaria chamomilla) commonly known as chamomile, German chamomile, is an annual plant of the composite family Asteraceae. M. recutita can be found near populated areas all over Europe and Asia, and it has been widely introduced in North America and Australia (Singh et al., 2011). The dried flowers of chamomile contain many terpenoids and flavonoids contributing to its medicinal properties.

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Babuna: Antibacterial (OPLC)

Infectious agents are the most changeable risk factors for human diseases. Because of the increasing global problem of emerging resistance of pathogens against antibiotics, there is an increased demand to discover new, effective, easy-to-obtain natural medicinal substances. Chamomile (Matricaria recutica L.) is a very popular and widely used herb in traditional folk medicine.

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Babuna: Anti-inflammatory (RelA)

Chamomile has long been used in traditional medicine for the treatment of inflammation-related disorders. In this study we investigated the inhibitory effects of chamomile on nitric oxide (NO) production and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression, and explored its potential anti-inflammatory mechanisms using RAW 264.7 macrophages.

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Babuna: Anti-inflammatory (COX-2)

There is increasing evidence that longstanding inflammation plays a critical role in the initiation and development of various human illnesses, including cancer. Inflammation and disease are linked through the production of inflammatory mediators by macrophages and neutrophils.

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