Matricaria recutita is a herbaceous plant belonging to the Asteraceae family. The present study reports the chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of M. recutita essential oil and its main compounds. The essential oil was obtained from the aerial parts of the M. recutita by hydrodistillation and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The major components were α-bisabolol oxide (38%), followed by camphene (9.11%), sabinene (4.87%), limonene (6%),1,8-cineole (7.12%), camphor (6.54%), and α-pinene (6%). Essential oil of chamomile was evaluated for its antibacterial activities against three gram-positive and four gram-negative pathogenic bacteria. The essential oil and its main compounds were particularly active against Bacillus cereus, with the lowest minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration value (0.022 and 1.5 µg /mL). In conclusion, these results support the use of the essential oil and its main compounds for their antimicrobial properties.