The single peroral administration of the ethyl acetate extract or essential oil of German chamomile (Matricaria recutita L.) showed remarkable antipruritic effects in the compound 48/80-induced itch-scratching test in ddY mice, if suitable vehicle was used. The ethyl acetate extract or essential oil of German chamomile dissolved in the vehicle of 10% ethanol, 10% Tween 80 and 80% physiological saline was orally administrated 2 h before pruritus provocation by compound 48/80 subcutaneous injection. The ethyl acetate extract or essential oil of German chamomile showed significant dose-dependent inhibition of the compound 48/80-induced scratching without affecting spontaneous motor activity. The antipruritic effects of antihistamine H1 antagonists, oxatomide (10 mg/kg) and fexofenadine (10 mg/kg), were only partial in this test. However, the antipruritic effects of these agents were remarkably enhanced by the combined administration of the ethyl acetate extract of German chamomile (300 mg/kg). Thus, the co-medication with the ethyl acetate extract, or essential oil of German chamomile and antihistamines might be effective for the pruritus which could not be perfectly resolved alone by conventional antihistamines.