The essential oil obtained by hydrodistillation from the fruits of Pimpinella anisum L. (green anise) and Foeniculum vulgare Miller (fennel) were analyzed by GC and GC/MS and physicochemical properties. The oils of P. anisum and F. vulgare were found to be especially rich in (E)-anethole, 96.3% and 92.7%, respectively. The MICs were determined by the tube dilution method against Paenibacillus larvae. The oils showed MICs values were 300 mg/mL and 250 mg/mL for P. anisum and F. vulgare, respectively. Both oils presented great similarity in physiochemical properties values and antimicrobial activity.