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Effects of Vitamin D3 on asymmetric- and symmetric dimethylarginine in arterial hypertension

Background and aims: Accumulating evidence has proposed a correlation between vitamin D (25(OH)D) insufficiency and cardiovascular (CV) disease. Vitamin D associated effects on endothelial function have been suggested to be a possible culprit. The present study investigated the association of vitamin D3 treatment on markers of endothelial dysfunction in patients with arterial hypertension.

Methods and results: The Styrian Vitamin D Hypertension Trial is a double-blind, placebo-controlled, single-centre study conducted at the Medical University of Graz, Austria. A total of 200 study participants with arterial hypertension and 25(OH)D levels below 30ng/mL were enrolled. The study participants were randomized to receive 2800 IU of vitamin D3 per day as oily drops (n=100) or placebo (n=100) for a duration of eight weeks. The present study uses an analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) to investigate the effect of vitamin D3 treatment on symmetric (SDMA) and asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA). A total of 187 participants (mean [SD] age 60.0 [11.3] years; 47% women; 25(OH)D 21.2 [5.6]ng/mL; mean systolic blood pressure of 131.4 [8.9] mmHg on a median of 2 antihypertensive drugs) completed the trial. Mean treatment effect was -0.004 (95%CI [-0.03 to 0.04]; P=0.819) on ADMA and 0.001 (95%CI [-0.05 to 0.05]; P=0.850) on SDMA. In the subgroup analysis patients with a 25(OH)D concentration <20ng/mL had a significant increase in their log l-arginine/ADMA ratio (mean treatment effect 18.4 95%CI [1.84-34.9]μmol/L/μmol/L; P=0.030). Identifier: NCT02136771 EudraCT number: 2009-018125-70

CONCLUSIONS: Vitamin D3 supplementation in hypertensive patients with low 25-hydroxyvitamin D has no significant effect on ADMA and SDMA.