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Synthesis and Antituberculosis Activity of Derivatives of Stevia rebaudiana Glycoside Steviolbioside and Diterpenoid Isosteviol Containing Hydrazone, Hydrazide, and Pyridinoyl Moieties

Conjugates of the antituberculosis drug isoniazid (isonicotinyl hydrazine) and isomeric hydrazides of nicotinic and αpicolinic acid with glycoside steviolbioside from the Stevia rebaudiana plant and the product of its acid hydrolysis, diterpenoid isosteviol, were synthesized. In addition, isosteviol hydrazide and hydrazone derivatives as well as conjugates containing two isosteviol moieties joined by a dihydrazide linker were obtained. The parental compounds and their synthetic derivatives were found to inhibit the in vitro growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (H37RV). The measured minimal concentrations of stevioside and steviolbioside, at which the growth of M. tuberculosis was inhibited by 100% (MIC), were 7.5 and3.8 μg/ml, respectively. MIC values for steviolbioside and isosteviol conjugates with hydrazides of pyridinecarbonic acid were within the ranges of 5–10 and 10–20 μg/ml, respectively. The maximal inhibitory effect against M. tuberculosis was shown by the isosteviol conjugates with adipic acid dihydrazide (MIC 1.7 and 3.1 μg/ml). Antituberculosis activities of the tested compounds were higher than the activity of antituberculosis drug Pyrizanamide (MIC 20 μg/ml) but lower than that of antituberculosis drug isoniazid (MIC 0.02–0.04 μg/ml)