Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni is a perennial shrub with zero calorie content that has been increasing in popularity for its potential use as an adjuvant in the treatment of obesity. We conducted a review of the literature summarizing thecurrent knowledge and role in human disease. Despite its very minimal systemic absorption, studies have been promising regarding its potential benefits against inflammation, carcinogenesis, atherosclerosis glucose control and hypertension. On the other hand, the growing popularity of artificial sweeteners does not correlate with improved trends in obesity. An increased intake of artificial non-caloric sweeteners may not be associated with decreased in take of traditional sugar-sweetened beverages and foods. The effects of Stevia on weight change have been linked to bacteria in the intestinal microbiome, mainly by affecting Clostridium and Bacteroides sp. populations. A growing body of evidence indicates that Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni is protective against malignant conversion by inhibition of DNA replication in human cancer cell growth in vitro. The level of evidence supporting general benefits to human health is insufficient. However, consumption of Stevia has demonstrated to be generally safe in most reports. Further clinical studies are warranted to determine if regular consumption brings sustained benefits for human health.