Consumption of sucrose is one of the dietary origins of some health concerns, such as dental caries, obesity and diabetes type 2. In Morocco, the statistics are alarming. Therefore, in order to reduce these major and growing problems of society, substituting sugar with low calorie sweeteners may be effective.Knowing that, the use of these sweetening compounds has increased seriously. Furthermore several experiments have questioned their lack of harmfulness to health, particularly aspartame. The revelation of a potential risk of synthetic sweeteners has led to the emergence of a new market, of intense sweeteners of natural origin, such as stevioside and rebaudioside A. The extracts from the leaves of Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni are natural, sweet-tasting and calorie free that may also be used as a sugar substitute or as an alternative to artificial sweeteners. Much progress has been made concerning their biological and pharmacological effects. This review article summarizes the current scientific researches about the actions and safety of sucrose Aspartame and Stevia rebaudiana extracts on human health.