Background: Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni has various pharmacological actions, which includes antidiabetic,antioxidant, anti-inflammatory activities. The superoxide and consequently NADPH oxidase (Nox) are relevant targets involved in biological effects of Stevia. The presence of NADPH-containing superoxide-producing lipoprotein(suprol) in Stevia leaves has not yet been tested. The mechanism of producing superoxide radicals (O2−) by suprol was determined in vitro, which is associated with the electron transfer from NADPH in the composition of suprol by traces of transition metal ions (Fe3+ or Cu2+) to molecular oxygen, turning it into O2−. It is expected that the therapeutic efficacy of Stevia leaves is caused by specific activity of superoxide-producing lipoprotein fraction.
Methods: For the first time, from the dry leaves of Stevia the NADPH-containing superoxide-producing lipoprotein was isolated and purified. The specific content of suprol (milligrams in 1 g of Stevia leaves- mg/g) was determined after desalination of suprol and lyophilization.
Results: According to the method provided, the specific content of the isolated suprol from Stevia’s leaves was upto 4.5 ± 0.2 mg / g (yields up to 68.5 ± 4.7%, p < 0.05, n = 6). Nox forms a stable complex with suprol. The optical absorption spectrum of the Nox-suprol complex represents the overlapping suprol and Nox spectra, with a certain background increase and characteristic features of optical absorption for Nox. Due to O2− producing capacity suprolNox complex discolors KMnO4 solutions, Coomassie brilliant blue, restores nitrotetrazolium blue to formazan andoxidizes epinephrine to adrenochrome. The oxidation activity of adrenaline is 50.3 ± 5.1 U / mg / ml (p < 0.05, n = 6).
Conclusion: Superoxide-producing lipoprotein fraction-Nox complex from Stevia leaves (membranes) can modulate redox regulated signaling pathways and may play a positive role in type-2 diabetes by means of adrenaline oxidation mechanism