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Inhibitory Effects of Helianthus tuberosus Ethanol Extract on Dermatophagoides farina body-induced Atopic Dermatitis Mouse Model and Human Keratinocytes

Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic inflammatory skin disease characterized by complex symptoms. To treat AD without adverse effects, alternative therapeutic agents are required.
The tubers of Helianthus tuberosus L. (Jerusalem artichoke) have been used in folk remedies for diabetes and rheumatism. However, its effect on AD development remains unknown. Therefore, this study examined the inhibitory effect of H. tuberosus (HT) on AD skin symptoms using an NC/Nga mouse model and HaCaT keratinocytes. The effect of HT and associated molecular mechanisms were evaluated in Dermatophagoides farina body (Dfb)-induced AD mice and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α/interferon (IFN)-γ-stimulated HaCaT keratinocytes by ELISA, western blot, and histological analysis. Topical HT administration attenuated AD skin symptoms in Dfb-induced AD mice, with a significant reduction in the dermatitis score and production of inflammatory mediators. HT also decreased epidermal thickness and mast cell infiltration. Moreover, HT restored filaggrin expression
and inhibited adhesion molecules in the mice. These effects were confirmed in vitro. Furthermore, HT suppressed the activation of NF-κB, Akt, and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways induced by TNF-α/IFN-γ. These results suggest that HT is a potential therapeutic agent or supplement for skin allergic inflammatory diseases such as AD.