Roseroot (Rhodiola rosea L.) belongs to plants revealing adaptogenic properties, which are attributed to the presence of specific phenolic compounds and are reflected mainly as antioxidant activity. The aim of the present study was to determine the antioxidant and antibacterial activity of various products obtained from R. rosea (underground organs as well as their aqueous and ethanolic dry extracts) in relation to the chemical profiles of phenolic and essential oil compounds. The chemical profiles were determined by High-performance Liquid Chromatography with a diode-array detector (HPLC-DAD) and Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), antioxidant activity by (1,1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) Scavenging Capacity Assay (DPPH), (2,20-Azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid)) Scavenging Capacity Assay(ABTS) and Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power Assay (FRAP) and antimicrobial properties were expressed as minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bacterial concentration (MBC)values following the broth microdilutions method. The results show that the investigated samples differed in terms of their chemical compositions and biological activities. The extracts were more abundant in phenolic compounds (salidroside, tyrosol, and rosavin derivatives) in comparison to dried underground organs. The content of the determined phenolics in the analyzed extracts was affected by the solvent used for extraction. The ethanolic extract was characterized by the highest content of these substances in comparison to the aqueous one and the dried raw material,especially with regard to rosavin (969.71 mg/100 g). In parallel, this extract showed the strongest antioxidant and antibacterial activity. However, dried R. rosea underground organs also revealed strong antibacterial effects against, for example, Staphylococcus strains.