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An in vivo and in vitro investigation on hepatoprotective effects of Pimpinella anisum seed essential oil and extracts against carbon tetrachloride-induced toxicity

Liver is the main organ responsible for xenobiotics metabolism; hence, it is vulnerable to damage induced by different chemicals. Hepatic injury is a major clinical problem associated with different xenobiotics including drugs and industrial chemicals. Hence, many hepatoprotective agents are studied to protect liver from toxic insults. Recently, interest in the discovery of natural antioxidants has risen exponentially. Principal candidates in this discovery process are medical plants. Pimpinella anisum (anise) belongs to the Umbelliferae family and grows in the Southern and northwest Iran, and countries such as Egypt, Turkey, and Greece. This herb is used in Iranian folk medicine as an analgesic, anti-inflammatory and anticonvulsant. Different extractions of P. anisum seed have been studied for their protective properties. In some studies, the properties of P. anisum essential oil have been investigated. It has been reported that essential oil and extracts of P. anisum have a wide range of biological activities. Previously, the phytochemical constituents of P. anisum have been analyzed and detected. Some compounds in the P. anisum extracts and essential oil demonstrated to have antioxidant activity.