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Antidiabetic Effect of Morinda citrifolia (Noni) Fermented by Cheonggukjang in KK-Ay Diabetic Mice

Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a chronic disorder characterized by hyperglycemia, with disturbances in carbohydrate, lipid, and lipoprotein metabolism stemming from defects in insulin secretion and insulin action, or both. About 90–95%of all cases of diabetes mellitus can be attributed to type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM, or adult-onset diabetes). T2DM is caused by the nonresponsiveness of cells to insulin rather than by defective insulin production. If not treated, T2DM can result in numerous severe complications, including coronary artery disease, peripheral vascular disease, and even death due to hyperglycemia. T2DM currently affects more than 246 million people worldwide, and it is estimated that the number of patients with diabetes mellitus will increase to 360 million by 2030. Indeed, about 5–10% of the total health care budget has been used for treatment and management of T2DM in many countries.