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Houttuynia cordata Thunb extract induces apoptosis through mitochondrial-dependent pathway in HT-29 human colon adenocarcinoma cells

The Houttuynia cordata Thunb (HCT) extract has been used as a traditional Chinese herb medicine and as well as an effective drug for treating allergic inflammation for thousands of years. In this study, we investigated the anti-cancer activity of HCT and its molecular mechanisms in the human colon adenocarcinoma cell line HT-29. HCT inhibited HT-29 cell viability in a dose- and time-dependent manner by MTT assay. Treatment with 450 μg/ml of HCT for 48 and 72 h led to DNA damage and apoptosis by DAPI staining and comet assay. HCT increased reactive oxygen species production and decreased the levels of mitochondria membrane potential (MMP) in HT-29 cells by flow cytometry analysis. HCT caused the release of cytochrome c, Apaf-1, pro-caspase-9 and AIF from mitochondria via a decrease of the MMP. The decrease of MMP was then associated with a decrease in the ratio of Bax/Bcl-2 and activation of caspase-9 and -3 by Western blotting and caspase activity assay. Caspase-9 and -3 inhibitors almost completely suppressed HCT-induced caspase-9 and -3 activities. Our results demonstrated that the HCT-induced apoptosis in human colon adeno-carcinoma cell line HT-29 might be related to a mitochondrial- dependent pathway.