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The Effects of Phyllanthus niruri Aqueous Extract on the Activation of Murine Lymphocytes and Bone Marrow-Derived Macrophages

Phyllanthus niruri (Euphorbiaceae) is reputed globally for its versatile application in traditional medicine of many Asian, African, and South American countries. In many preclinical and clinical studies, extracts of P. niruri have been associated with many beneficial pharmacological and therapeutic effects. Some of the most outstanding medicinal values of the herb include anti-hepatotoxic, anti-lithic, anti-tumour, anti-HIV, and anti-hepatitis B. It has also been reported that Phyllanthus niruri extract could improves specific and non-specific immune responses to infections and is generally believed to be beneficial in immunodeficiency conditions. Traditionally, aqueous or aqueous alcoholic decoctions of the whole aerial parts of the plant are taken for different ailments.

Phyllanthus niruri is a small, erect, annual herb that grows 30–50 cm in height. It is indigenous to the rainforests of the Amazon and other tropical areas throughout the world, including the Bahamas, southern India, and China. P. niruri is prevalent in the Amazon and other wet rainforests, growing and spreading freely.