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Metabolic and biochemical changes in streptozotocin induced obese-diabetic rats treated with Phyllanthus niruri extract

Herbal medicine has been proven to be an effective therapy offering a variety of benefits, such as moderate reduction in hypoglycemia, in the treatment and prevention of obesity and diabetes. Phyllanthus niruri has been used as a treatment for diabetes mellitus. Herein, the induction of type 2 diabetes in Sprague–Dawley rats was achieved by a low dose of streptozotocin (STZ) (25 mg/kg bw). Here, we evaluated the in vivo antidiabetic properties of two concentrations (250 and 500 mg/kg bw) of P. niruri via metabolomics approach. The administration of 500 mg/kg bw of P. niruri extract caused the metabolic disorders of obese diabetic rats to be improved towards the normal state. The extract also clearly decreased the serum glucose level and improved the lipid profile in obese diabetic rats. The results of this study may contribute towards better understanding the molecular mechanism of this medicinal plant in managing diabetes mellitus.

Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a chronic disease in which the pancreas does not produce enough insulin (type 1) or the body is unable to use the insulin effectively (type 2). Worldwide, 9% of adults aged 18 years and above were living with diabetes in 2014. In addition, DM caused 1.5 million deaths in 2013, with 80% of them occurring in low- and middle-income countries. Type 2 DM is the most common type, which affects 90% of people with diabetes worldwide. This disease is also mostly diagnosed in adults. Type 2 DM is functional disorder in the proper use of insulin and can be caused by the partial destruction of the insulin-producing-cells of the pancreas. These receptor cells become less sensitive to insulin and as a result, sugar accumulates in the blood. Type 2 DM is often related to obesity, physical inactivity and genetics. The simulation of diabetes in animal models has been used in many studies investigating this disease and its complications.