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Herbal (Phyllanthus niruri) protein isolate protects liver from nimesulide induced oxidative stress

Present study was conducted to evaluate the role of a protein fraction (PI, protein isolate) of the herb, Phyllanthus niruri (P. niruri) against nimesulide-induced oxidative stress in vivo using a murine model. Mice were intraperitoneally treated with that at a dose of 5 mg/kg body weight for 7 days before and separately 1–5 days after nimesulide (at a dose of 10 mg/kg body weight for 7 days) administration to evaluate its preventive and curative role. Levels of reduced glutathione (GSH), antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT), as well as thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) were measured in the liver homogenates of all study groups. Pretreatment with isolated P. niruri protein fraction significantly enhanced nimesulide-induced reduced levels of antioxidant enzymes and GSH as well as reduced the enhanced level of lipid peroxidation. Post-treatment studies showed that the recovery after nimesulide induced oxidative stress was more rapid if PI was administered compared to the spontaneous recovery of liver. Histological studies also suggest that this protein fraction could prevent as well as cure liver from nimesulide induced oxidative stress. DPPH radical scavenging assay showed that it could scavenge free radicals. Its antioxidant property was compared with that of a known potent antioxidant, Vitamin E. Besides, the effect of a non-relevant protein, BSA, was also included in the study. Heat treatment and trypsin digestion destroyed the biological activity of this protein fraction. In conclusion, data obtained suggest that the P. niruri protein fraction may protect liver from nimesulide-induced oxidative stress probably via promotion of antioxidant defense.