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Studies on Hepatoprotective, Antispasmodic and Calcium Antagonist Activities of the Aqueous-methanol Extract of Achillea millefolium

Achillea millefolium Linn. (Asteraceae) is a perennial herb, commonly found in northern areas of Pakistan. The aerial parts of the plant are used either whole or separately for medicinal purposes. The plant has a folklore reputation as being diaphoretic, stimulant, antipyretic, analgesic, antiinflammatory, antispasmodic, carminative and antihelmentic. It has been used in various liver diseases either alone or as a part of a compound formulation. It is one of the constituents in two very commonly available herbal preparations for liver disorders in Pakistan, namely ‘Jigarine’ and ‘Liv-52’. However, the plant has not been studied widely, in particular, for its effective-ness in hepatic and gastrointestinal disorders. This study was conducted to evaluate the hepatoprotective and antispasmodic activities of this plant to provide a scientific basis for some of its traditional uses.