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Anti-diabetic effects including diabetic nephropathy of anti-osteoporotic trace minerals on diabetic mice

Objective: In our previous study to evaluate the effects of soluble silicon (Si) on bone metabolism, Siand coral sand (CS) as a natural Si-containing material suppressed peroxisome proliferator activated receptor g (PPARg), which regulates both glucose and bone metabolism and increases adipogenesis at the expense of osteogenesis, leading to bone loss. In this study, we investigated the anti-diabetic effects of bone-seeking elements, Si and stable strontium (Sr), and CS as a natural material containing these elements using obese diabetic KKAy mice.

Methods: Weanling male mice were fed diets containing 1% Ca supplemented with CaCO3 as the control and CS, and diets supplemented with 50 ppm Si or 750 ppm Sr to control diet for 56 d. ThemRNA expressions related to energy expenditure in the pancreas and kidney were quantified by real-time polymerase chain reaction.

Results: At the end of feeding, plasma glucose, insulin, leptin, and adiponectin levels decreased significantly in three test groups, while pancreatic PPARg and adiponectin mRNA expression levels increased significantly toward the normal level, improving the glucose sensitivity of b-cells and inducing a significant decrease in insulin expression. The renal PPARg, PPARa, and adiponectin expression levels, histologic indices of diabetic glomerulopathy, and plasma indices of renal function were also improved significantly in the test groups.

Conclusion: Taken together, anti-osteoporotic trace minerals, Si and Sr, and CS containing them showed novel anti-diabetic effects of lowering blood glucose level, improving the tolerance to insulin, leptin, and adiponectin, and reducing the risk of glomerulopathy through modulation of related gene expression in the pancreas and kidney