In the present study, oxidative stress in diabetic model and the effect of garlic oil or melatonin treatment were examined. Streptozotocin (6 0 mgykg body weight, i.p.)-induced diabetic rats, showed a significant increase of plasma glucose, total lipids, triglyceride, cholesterol, lipid peroxides, nitric oxide and uric acid. Concomitantly, significant
decreases in the levels of antioxidants ceruloplasmin, albumin and total thiols were found in the plasma of diabetic rats. Lipid peroxide levels were significantly increased in erythrocyte lysate and in homogenates of liver and kidney, while superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities were decreased in tissue homogenates of liver and kidney. Treatment of diabetic rats with garlic oil (10 mg/kg i.p.) or melatonin (200 μg/kg i.p.) for 15 days significantly increased plasma levels of total thiol, ceruloplasmin activities, albumin. Lipid peroxides, uric acid, blood glucose, total lipid, triglyceride and cholesterol were decreased significantly after treatment with garlic oil or melatonin. Nitric oxide levels were decreased
significantly in rats treated with melatonin only. In erythrocytes lysate, glutathione S-transferase (GST) activities were increased significantly in rats treated with garlic oil or melatonin, while lipid peroxides decreased significantly and total thiol increased significantly in melatonin or garlic oil treatment, respectively. In liver homogenates of rats treated with
garlic or melatonin, lipid peroxides were decreased significantly, and GST activities increased significantly, while SOD activities were increased significantly in liver and kidney after garlic or melatonin treatment. The results suggest that garlic oil or melatonin may effectively normalize the impaired antioxidants status in streptozotocin induced-diabetes.
The effects of these antioxidants of both agents may be useful in delaying the complicated effects of diabetes as retinopathy, nephropathy and neuropathy due to imbalance between free radicals and antioxidant systems. Moreover, melatonin may be more powerful free radical scavenger than garlic oil.